A History of Calendering

The calendering processes that we know today are the finishing methods developed from the early 1800s mainly to make machine-made papers sufficiently smooth for printing and writing and to give some grades a glossy appearance. These two properties are quite distinct, the former being related to the ability of a paper surface to receive ink satisfactorily and uniformly, the latter referring to its light reflecting characteristics. Because the methods employed since well before 1000 AD to increase smoothness invariably also increased gloss, they used to be called 'glazing' well into the 1800s whilst the processes used specifically to increase gloss were called 'plate glazing', 'hot pressing' or 'sanitising'. Calendering also became necessary to reduce thickness variations across machine-made paper to avoid problems in making good reels and, in the manufacture of high density papers like glassine and condenser tissue, to change the paper structure more or less into a solid sheet. This monograph covers the development of calendering from hand papermaking to modern techniques and understanding.

A5, 54 pages, 18 b&w illustrations. ISSN 1759-765X

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