The Quarterly No. 72 - October 2009

China Paper Usage in Early Van Diemen's Land Printing - Ian Wilson

Residents of Van Diemen's Land, more usually known as Tasmania, started to publish a newspaper in 1810, and soon after books were produced. Major problems were encountered in obtaining reliable supplies of paper for printing such articles, which was a major setback for the development of literature in the region. This article described how China paper, recognisable due to its unusual furnish and the presence of brush marks on its surface, was one solution used by early printers. Unfortunately such papers do not have good long-term stability, and many of the early printed articles are in poor condition due to decay and deterioration of these early papers, which accounts for the relative dearth of early published material that survives today.

7 pages, 3 illustrations (2 colour)

History of Paper Test Instrumentation Part 13: Wet Strength Testers - Daven Chamberlain

This is the fifth successive article in the series to depict strength test apparatus. Wet strength testers are comparatively recent in origin, and date from the first quarter of the 20th century. Their importance relates to determining the runnability of wet webs on paper machines and converting equipment, such as coaters and printing presses. Several different designs, none of which are common today, are described and illustrated.

4 pages, 3 illustrations

Paper Mills and Waterpower - Richard L Hills

The use of waterpower in mills is described, and the development of water-powered machinery in paper mills is discussed, particularly with regard to changes in paper manufacture that occurred during the mediaeval and Renaissance periods. Following introduction of the paper machine even more power was required, but although steam engines made rapid headway in this field, use of water power did not die completely; a fact that was helped in part by development of the water turbine. It is interesting to note that although most UK mills stopped using water power by the late 20th century, at least one mill was still generating some power by water until closed in 2005.

5 pages, 2 illustrations

Nash Mills Chalk Mine - Jonathan R. Hunn & Michael Stanyon

Following subsidence at a house close to the old Nash Mills, near Hemel Hempstead, evidence of chalk mining was uncovered. Although it is known that such mines existed in the area, they are not documented or shown on local maps. One of the authors (JRH) is from a local archaeological consultancy that undertook a survey of the mine. Further work showed that John Dickenson owned mines in the area, and the work concludes by suggesting some of the uses to which the great papermaker may have put the chalk in the early-mid part of the 19th century.

4 pages, 3 illustrations

Paper Pulp from Wood, Straw, and Other Fibres in the Past and the Present - W John Stonhill

This very long prize-winning essay from 1885 charts the production of pulp from wood and other plant raw materials. Written from a contemporary viewpoint it describes numerous experiments run at laboratory, pilot and production scale that together ended in the commercial exploitation of wood as a viable raw material for production of paper pulp.

11 pages, 3 tables

New Insights into Aluminium Chemistry and Paper Ageing - Daven Chamberlain

Most researchers have concentrated upon the acidity of alum solutions as the basis of why paper containing such aluminium salts degrade with time. However acidity does not tell the whole story. Experimental data reported for the first time in this article show categorically that the degenerative nature of aluminium can be curbed by addition of certain chemical species, despite the underlying presence of high levels of acidity. Two practical causes of this anomaly are described and a potential use of the phenomenon in the area of paper conservation is discussed.

3 pages, 5 illustrations

East Lancashire Paper Mill Co. Ltd. Part 1 - - PW Hampson

This is the first part of a study on the founding and first few decades of East Lancashire Paper Company. The essay concentrates on the economic and social history underlying the Company's foundation, and was awarded the dissertation prize from the University which awarded the author his BA.

6 pages, 1 illustration, 2 tables

Two Letters from Springfield Mill Laboratory

Two letters from the pen of J F Briggs of Springfield Mill laboratory, to Charles Balston, the mill owner, circa 1904. They give interesting and unusual details of mill alterations and paper processing.

2 pages

A Curious Typewriter

The inventiveness of the Victorian mind knew few bounds, which is ably demonstrated by this small article about a ludicrous 'glove' typewriter.

1 page, 1 illustration

Saving Paper History: The Wiggins Teape Archive and Related Material at Butlers Court - Peter Bower

Following the decision to close Butler's Court (the English R&D of Arjo Wiggins) last year, a new home had to be found for the Wiggins Teape archive. Fortunately David Tompson, a member of BAPH, stepped into the breach with a rescue package that will see the material form part of a new Paper Study Collection, that will eventually be accessible to the public. The author tells the story of this rescue, and illustrates it with material from the archive using pictures of rag pickers from Crabble Mill circa 1903.

3 pages, 4 colour illustrations

Imitation Stained Glass from Paper

A description of an early 20th century German patent that used embossed paper and varnish to produce imitation stained glass.

1 page, 1 illustration