The Quarterly No. 40 - October 2001


Security Papers - Colin Harris

The earliest security papers were probably special papers for currency, in the UK, Portals have manufactured banknote paper in Hampshire since 1724.
This article examines, and details, current methods employed to provide security measures which are implemented by the paper mill, either by inclusions or in the properties of the paper. Methods covered are: Chemical Security; Adhesive Film; Laser Print Adhesion Improvement; Watermark; Thread; Planchettes, Security Fibres and HiLites; Chemical Verification; Optical Variable Devices (OVD).

5 pages, colour illustrations, tipped in paper sample


Fire: The Papermaker's Nightmare - Ian Dye

Of the many reasons for the disappearance of paper mills from the face of the landscape fire has always been one of the most destructive and horrific. Reports on fires generated eye-catching news for the local, and sometimes, national newspapers of the 18th and 19th centuries. This article looks at some of the reporting of the more interesting paper mill fires in the period 1750 to 1900.

4 pages, table


Book Review

The Paper Conservator, Volume 25. Edited by Alan Donnithorne & Jane Eagan.


Papermaking Texts: Hector Campbell and Bleaching - Peter Bower

Perhaps the most important development in papermaking in the 1790s, aside from Robert's invention of the papermachine, was the introduction of chemical bleaching. Little is known about some of the pioneers, including Hector Campbell, but some of their published writings are worthy of study. This article is a reprint of two of his texts, firstly, his 1792 Patent for "An Improved Method of Destroying and Taking away all the Carbonic, Oleaginous, and Colouring Elements and Particles in Linen, Cotton, Hemp, and in all Coloured Rags and other Materials used in Making Paper...", and secondly, a long letter dating from 1802 in which Campbell compares and contrasts the then state of English and French Papermaking.

5 pages, illustrated


Sir William Congreve's Triple Paper: A New Transcription of an Unique Document - Douglas Stone and Cindy Bowden

This work by Congreve on the development of the banknote and security papers has been briefly touched on before in The Quarterly No 23, July 1997 and a version of Congreve's manuscript was published by Dard Hunter in 1947, but that transcription was incomplete. The manuscript is a volume of 62 pages containing 36 specimens of tipped in paper samples and  twelve pages of manuscript by Sir William Congreve. This article is a complete transcription of that text.

8 pages, colour & b/w illustrations


The London Papers (part two)

In a move away from past practices and in order to catch up on publishing the backlog of past BAPH conference papers it has been decided to include the conference papers as partworks within The Quarterly. The first of these to appear are The London Papers, the Proceedings of the British Association of Paper Historians Sixth Annual Conference, held at Imperial College London in 1995.

Paper Excise Stamps on a Re-used Haslemere Ream-wrapper - Alan Crocker

An examination and report of the covering of the 1820 Land Tax Return for Haslemere, Surrey made from re-used coarse paper printed on the inside with the Royal Arms and the words 'SUPERFINE FINE / JAMES SIMMONS'. This turned out to be ream wrapper complete with excise label and stamps, the only example known to have survived from the early nineteenth century, largely because purchasers were instructed to destroy them. Includes a short account of the Simmons family papermakers and also details on the excise duties payable on paper. 

5 pages, illustrated


Decorative End-papers in the National Art Library in the Victoria and Albert Museum - Marian Keyes

End-papers consist of units of two or more leaves which provide a measure of safety for the text-block from the wear and tear of book handling. An obvious function of many end-papers is to cover the inside of the book board, hiding the cover turn-ins. Bookbinders soon realised that end-papers had an enormous decorative potential, utilising techniques such as wood-block printing and marbling. This article is a study of some of the end-papers found in books in the libraries collection. There is an appendix detailing papers used in books displayed in the exhibition held between 12 January - 13 March 1994 in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

8 pages, illustrated, appendix


Innovative and Unsung: George Steart's Development of Artists' Watercolour and Drawing Paper 1805-1832 - Peter Bower

Since 1989 the author has been involved in the study and identification of the papers used by J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851)for the nearly 20,000 drawings and watercolours in The Turner Bequest at the Tate Gallery, London. One of the areas that has emerged is that most of the coloured papers used by Turner were made by the until now relatively unknown George Steart, of Bally, Ellen and Steart, papermakers of De Montalt Mill, Monkton Combe, Bath. George Steart's involvement with De Montalt Mill and The Royal Society of Arts is covered in depth, including the full text submitted by him detailing the process of manufacture and published by the Society on the award of the Isis Silver Medal in 1821. There is also an appendix on John Constable (1778-1837) and George Steart's paper.

12 pages, illustrated, appendix