The Quarterly No. 53 – January 2005

A Study of Economic and Social History in 19th Century Scotland: Comparison of the Philosophies of Cowan vs. Owen Peter Smaill

The Cowans campaigned vigorously and successfully on the matter of the excise on paper, set at 30% and far in excess of continental rates. In this matter it has but rarely been noted that they were in contact with the famous pioneer socialist Robert Owen. In the clash of ideas between the Cowan family and Robert Owen of Lanark, we can trace the response of practical men of business to the ideas of Adam Smith, in the hundred years following his death in 1790.

5 pages, illustrated

History of Paper Test Instrumentation part 1: Introduction and Basic Material Composition Daven Chamberlain 

First of a series of articles giving a comprehensive coverage of the history and development of instrumentation used to assess paper properties, and so predict their suitability for end use requirements. It is intended to highlight a number of important areas of test instrumentation, and to try and show how instruments developed over time. Where possible it is also intended to illustrate articles with examples of such instrumentation, so that a record is made of how the instruments looked as well as how they operated and what they measured.

10 pages, illustrated

Mr Holmes Goes a Wooing Mike Malley

Whilst examining the archives of Oakenclough Paper Mill the author came across a poem written by Charles Holmes following a visit to 'Jackson's Paper Mill' in 1851. It has an unusual style of prose but its verses confirm innovative changes taking place both at the mill and on the attached 150 acre farm. Appendix detailing Sun Fire-Office Insurance Policy for Oakenclough Mill.

3 pages, illustrated, appendix

Paper Manufacture Albert E Reed

An article taken from the Society for the Promotion of Scientific Industry – Artisans Reports Upon the Vienna Exhibition 1873. It provides a fascinating insight into various aspects of the industry at the time, written by a knowledgeable authority on the subject. The language is marvellously direct, with opinions offered on a great many exhibits, from machinery and paper samples, to wires and pulps. It is also interesting to see how Reed manages to include a little self-promotion into the report, which ends on a surprisingly modern environmental theme.

8 pages

The Paper of 'The Grete Herbal', 1526 Ian Christie-Miller

'The Grete Herbal', 1526, London, (174 page folio bound in sixes), is the first illustrated book on plants printed in England. Study of watermarks shows that the paper comes from a large number of different mills. Comparison is made against the paper used in four other 1526 copies, and one 1529 copy. A description is given of a simple technique to create a composite image of a watermark from several watermarks partially obscured by overprinting. Also an appreciation is made of a newly devised
technique for the covert enhancement of security of handmade paper. This is the Paperprint method which effectively generates a digital fingerprint of the paper. A brief description is given of the Advanced Paper Imaging System – APIS – which was used for the work.

4 pages, illustrated

Vegetable Parchment – The German Connection Philip Harris

Between 1945 and 1947 in the aftermath of World War II a little known project took place – a complete survey of both German and Japanese industry. The purpose was simply to collect and publicise all technical information which might be of value to British industry. The reports were compiled by British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committees (BIOS), BIOS Team No. 2562 dealt with the German vegetable parchment industry, summarised in the article.

4 pages, appendix

Belgium Conference 2002

Carbonless Copy Paper: A Personal Reminiscence Ian Hendry

The author was involved in the introduction of carbonless copy paper to Britain and its development by 1980 into a £100,000,000 business. This article is a record of that development rather than a historical document.

8 pages, illustrated

The Preparation of Japanese Paper

The quality and properties of Japanese paper have long been admired in the West. This article, which first appeared in The Paper Trade Review, Vol.13, 14 February 1890, details some early investigative work performed in Germany, the main centre for the scientific analysis of paper and papermaking at the time, on samples of Japanese paper. It shows how the plant types play a major role in giving the paper its unique combination of properties.

2 pages

Papermaking Texts: On Paper Mills and Making Straw-Paper in England Alan

Originally published in the Annals of Arts and Manufactures or Technological Specifications on Modern Discoveries concerning Arts, Manufactures, Agriculture and Commerce under the title 'On Paper Mills and Making Straw-Paper in England, with an abridged description of the Paper Mill of Mr Koops in London, October-November 1802. See also 'Papermaking Texts: Repulping Paper and Straw-Paper' in The Quarterly 51, July 2004.

8 pages, illustrated

The Quarterly No. 54 – April 2005

The Wise Family: Unlucky or Inept Papermakers? Ian Dye

Between 1798 and 1861 eight members of the Wise family plied their trade at six paper mills in England and three in France. despite the death of the last of the papermaking line in 1861, the name lived on, as 'Wise & Co', in Northamptonshire, until 1882. This article seeks to establish the relationship between the papermaking wises and identify the mills at which they worked. The difficulty of unravelling the Wise family tree, which contains several Johns, was highlighted in an
article on Padsole paper mill published in the January 2001 edition of The Quarterly.

11 pages, illustrated

Swansea Conference 2003

A Papermaking visit to China Richard Hills 

An account of a visit to areas of China where paper is still made by hand in April and May 2002. The tour started in the western part of the country at Kunming with one circuit being traversed in a roughly north-westerly direction to Dali, Heqing, Zhongdian near the Tibetan border, and Lijiang. Then came a second route to the south-east of Kunming in Guizhou province based essentially on the area around Kaili. Eight different villages were visited where nine different ways of making paper where seen. The paper was made from two different fibre sources, paper mulberry and bamboo, each requiring different treatment. The article outlines the historical background before giving in depth descriptions of the processes involved.

9 pages, illustrated

Corrections to A Life with Paper: WJ (Dard) Hunter 1883-1966 Cathleen

Barry Watson sent a copy of the above (The Quarterly No 51) article about Dard Hunter to Cathleen Baker, author of a book that was Barry's main reference source on his subject. Cathleen wrote back to Barry, thanking him for the article, and highlighting a small number of inaccuracies, which Barry wishes we record so as to correct the published record. Cathleen writes:

There are a few factual errors that you may want to note: Dard Hunter's mother's name was Harriet not Helen; the Hunters did not personally know Elbert Hubbard before DH went to the Roycrofters; Tuskegee Institute was the only one that was "all Negro"; and DH was a second generation printer. That DH was a 5th generation printer wasa common "myth" that he perpetuated, but I could find absolutely no evidence that anyone in his family prior to his father was an actual compositor/pressman.

1 page

The Development of Papermaking in County Durham Jean Stirk

Papermaking was an important industry in Co. Durham for at least a century and a half, yet its history and role in the life of that county has been sadly neglected. The article concentrates on the development of papermaking in the area before 1900, it is an attempt to rectify that situation by revealing something of Co. Durham's papermaking past, in the hope that more will be unveiled by other researchers. It is also a taster of her new book soon to be published by the Durham County Local History Society.

7 pages, illustrated

The Nash Family at War: Papermaking as a P.O.W

An extract from the book 'William Nash of St Paul's Cray, Papermakers' by WS Shears. It details the wartime experiences of Colonel Nash and his nephew, Brian, both captured during the Second World War. The former maintained a correspondence with his employees at the mill using a special code and the latter devised methods of making paper by hand.

2 pages


A short extract from a document held in The National Archives addressing the definition of 'Millboard'. From document reference E134/26Geo2/Mich4, dated 26 George II.

1 page

Bath Conference 1999

The International Paper Trade Tom Bolton

A paper aiming to review the paper industry, and to give the reader a feel for its magnitude, as well as an introduction to some of the current issues. The statistics were assembled ten years ago, and it is interesting to see how the industry has moved on from there. The subject is dealt with under a number of headings, dealing with a comparison of this industry with others; the tonnage changes over the years; raw material and environmental considerations; and finally, future prediction.

5 pages, illustrated, tables

The Rag-picker of Paris

This article was serialized between January and April in the 1893 edition of The Paper Maker and British Paper Trade Journal. It complements the two articles published previously in The Quarterly No 42 & The Quarterly No 44, by Henry Mayhew, which detailed the lives of the English professionals involved with street-collection and recycling of waste materials. Both sets of articles describe a level of recycling we can only marvel at in the modern world.

4 pages

Thomas Girtin's Watercolour of Egglestone Abbey Mill Peter Bower

Short note on Thomas Girtin's painting of Eggleston Abbey Mill. JMW Turner's painting of the same mill has already been illustrated in The Quarterly No 13.

1 page, illustrated

The Paper in Unwin's 'A Century of Progress' published in 1926 Alan Crocker

An examination of the paper used in the 1926 publication of Unwin Brothers Ltd A Century of Progress. Unwin Brothers leased both Chilworth paper mill and a former paper mill at Woking. The author has researched the history of the Chilworth and Woking paper mills. The nature of the paper and the arrangement of the watermarks leads him to conclude that the paper was made on a cylinder mould machine and a comprehensive account of the workings to that conclusion are detailed.

7 pages, illustrated

Book Reviews

The Leaves we Write On – James Cropper: A history in paper-making. Mark Cropper
Conservation Mounting for Prints and Drawings – A manual based on current practice at the British Museum. Joanna M Kosak.
The Wallpaper History Review 2004-5. Edited by Christine Woods.
The Paper Conservator Volume 28. Edited by Jane Eagan.

The Quarterly No. 55 – July 2005

York Conference 2004

My Early Life in the Paper Trade Barry Watson

An article of reminiscences, together with a little papermaking history, of the authors first contacts with paper, and how he became involved with the paper industry. During this early part of his career he worked at Croxley Mill under the supervision of Dr Julius Grant.

4 pages

Notes on Yorkshire Papermaking Richard Hills 

An account of the development of the papermaking industry in Yorkshire from its beginnings in the seventeenth century to mills still working in the twentieth century. Includes details of Henry Cooke's mills and notes on the five mills identified by Shorter as being established before 1800 and still working in 1957 – Langcliffe, Otley, Pool, Stainland and Stepney.

7 pages, illustrated

The Illusive Silver Lining (part 2): The Role of the Lancastrian Industrialist in the Lancashire Paper Mill mania of the 1870s Mike Malley

Part 1 of the Illusive Silver Lining examined the claim by the influential Lancashire paper maker John Mitchell, that it was explosion in the numbers of limited company paper mills that caused a depression in the paper manufacturing industry in the late 1870s. He was correct in much of what he said but he completely ignored the true cause. He made claims of the role of working class investment losses in the new companies and this article seeks to demonstrate the inaccuracy of this.

Part 1 was published in four parts in The Quarterly in 2002

7 pages, illustrated, tables

British Bibliography of Paper History and Watermark Studies No 12, 2004 – Andrew Honey

Listing of articles concerned with papermaking published in 2004, with addenda to Bibliography No 11, 2003.

2 pages

In Memoriam: Be van Ginneken-van de Kasteele

Be van Ginneken-van de Kasteele died on 9 February 2005 aged 91. She was one of the last of a remarkable group of paper historians in the Netherlands, including Henk Voorn, Edo Loeber and LJ Labarre. She was responsible for editorial work on many of the Paper Publications Society's books and also became Keeper of the Labarre Collection at Amsterdam University Library.

2 pages

The Print Room in England and Ireland 1750-1830 – Julie Fitzgerald

The Print Room consisted of pasting prints, engravings, etchings, mezzotints, aquatints and lithographs onto a coloured paper background in a symmetrical arrangement. It was a novel and popular from of decoration during the reigns of George II, George III and George IV. The author details the development of the room, including the influence of wallpaper, and the problems of maintaining the few surviving examples.

9 pages, colour photographs

A Papermaker's Plaint – A Poem Daven Chamberlain

Reproduction of a poem, published just before World War 1, that still rings true today for many paper technicians. How often are we brought a sample of paper little bigger than a postage stamp and asked to replicate it? So it is interesting, and comforting, to see that this is a situation which has been happening for a great many years!

2 pages

Reminiscences on the Development of Casting Papers at Stoneywood – Gordon

Film casting papers are a special form of release (non-stick) paper, generally with a patterned (embossed) surface, onto which a 'solution' of plastic is coated. After being heated, the plastic forms a skin that can be peeled off, taking the pattern of the paper surface, and it used to make 'artificial leather'. The editors would welcome any further such reminiscences, particularly on similar unusual or niche papers.

2 pages

Index to The Quarterly Nos 49 – 52 – Terry Wells

The index is arranged in nine categories: Articles by author; Articles by title; Book reviews; General index; Illustrations; Papermakers; Paper mills; Tipped-in paper samples; Watermarks. The Watermarks index is further divided into those that are illustrated and those that are mentioned in the text.

17 pages

The Quarterly No. 56 – October 2005

Paper Mills at Dulcote, Wells, Somerset Brian Luker

A short article attempting to clear the confusion surrounding the identity of the two paper mills at Dulcote. Research has now made it possible to allocate many of the previously identified owners, leaseholders and papermakers to the two mills and extend the history back to the seventeenth century.

5 pages, illustrated

Durham Conference 2000

Maids of Tartarus: Female Labour in the New Zealand Paper Industry Sydney Shep

An examination of the New Zealand paper industry in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The article highlights disparities in the employment of males and females and gives details of working and social conditions. The title is reference to "The Tartarus of Maids" by Herman Melville, an
account of the exploitation of female labour written following a visit to a paper mill in Massachusetts.

6 pages

Bowaters in the Mid 20th Century Norman Underwood

Reminiscences of the authors employment at Bowaters Central Research Laboratories from just after it was set up in 1948 till leaving in 1963. Included in his memoirs are the 'Irish Peat Paper' incident and the rigours of climbing the social ladder in the paper industry.

3 pages

Erratum – British Watermarks: The Papers of Wells Cathedral MS1 – Brian Luker

The original article (The Quarterly No 49, Jan 2004) contained a textual error. The picture of watermark 7 is designated as "Crowned Pius", which purports to be a translation of Epingles
Croissées. In the text it is translated correctly as "crossed pins".

This error has unfortunately crept in to the index. Since this watermark has not been recorded elsewhere it is important to make the correction here.

1 page

History of Paper Test Instrumentation Part Two: Sizing Testers – Daven Chamberlain

Continuing this comprehensive and in-depth study of paper testing instruments, this part covering size testers. Details are given of the main quantitative tests and instruments used to describe sizing properties, listed according to the basic physical properties under examination.

13 pages, illustrated

A Visit to China in May 2004 – Richard Hills

Account of a visit by the author and Sydney and Elaine Koretsky to China in May 2004. During their stay they saw paper being made by hand at eight different places, ranging from Hangzhou in the south to Dege in what used to be Tibet. The papermaking varied from primitive small sheets to high quality, very large sheet sizes for calligraphy, the techniques used suggesting possible answers to puzzles in the history of papermaking.

4 pages, illustrated

Poems on Paper Michael Fuller

Continuing the theme from the last issue of poems connected with papermaking the author has submitted poems discovered during research on Turkey Mill, Maidstone, Kent.

3 pages

'The Bolton Brotherhood' – A Late Eighteenth Century Story of Cooperation at a Group of South Lancashire Paper Mills – Mike Malley

In 1792, Thomas Greaves, manager of Millbank paper mill near Warrington signed an agreement with nine others to fix the price of over forty paper types. The author looks for evidence that they were all papermakers and had close connections to the Bolton area and also in detail at the paper types on the list. He also examines another contemporary document signed by some of the ten and assesses both documents in the context of some tumultuous events taking place in the paper industry.

6 pages, tables, appendices

In Memoriam – Christine Mackay

The world of paper is inhabited by many remarkable people, one of whom, the paper conservator Christine Mackay, a member of BAPH, sadly died in July of this year shortly after her retirement as Senior Paper Conservator at the National Museum and Gallery of Wales, Cardiff. She trained at Camberwell School of Arts and joined the National Museum and Gallery of Wales from the British Museum in 1990. Over the years she contributed much to the Institute of Paper Conservation and at the time of her death was a member of IPC's Executive Committee.

1 page

Book Review

Art on Paper: Mounting and Housing. Ed Judith Rayner, Joanna M Kosek and Birthe Christensen.

Watermark Catalogues & Related Texts: A Personal Recommendation Peter Bower

A short selected list of watermark catalogues and various related texts published in response to enquiries regarding the availability of published information on watermarks.

3 pages

The World of Paper Paper and its Uses

A collection of four short articles exploring some of the more unusual uses of paper including window glass; laboratory utensils; barrels and as wartime propaganda.

4 pages